Man With Dogs (man_with_dogs) wrote,
Man With Dogs
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международная гуманитарная помощь

Попалась мне краткая шпаргалка университета в Индианаполисе по теме "история международной гуманитарной помощи". Интересно, а на русском языке подобные курсы и темы вообще существуют? В СССР они никого не волновали - там людей нужно было пугать ужасами капитализма, потому о гуманитарной помощи распускали брехню (даже когда помогали населению под большевицким правлением). А сейчас хоть что-то изменилось?

http://www.iupui.edu/~histwhs/h699.dir/HumanitChrono.htm

The History of International Humanitarian Assistance

Notes on Developments in 19th and 20th centuries

-Origins

in addition to earlier religious traditions, new 18th century secular ideas of compassion for human suffering

main focus on poor relief, child and other labor laws, etc. as 19th century industrialization produces problems in growing urban

first international manifestation is in opposition to slavery and the slave trade (along with religious-based concern)

-to 1860s: examples of other responses to international suffering

Lisbon earthquake (1755) 30,000 die

Abolition of Slave Trade campaign (1807 in Britain; 1808 in U.S.; 1826 France; 1819 Portugal north.of Equator)

Greek War of Independence (1821-32)

Irish Potato (and other) Famine (1846-48)

Crimean War (1854-56)

Austro-French War (1859-60)

American Civil War (1861-65)

-1860s to 1914: Origins of Red Cross; international awareness of disaster and cooperation

Red Cross: from Solferino (Austro-French War) to Franco-Prussian War 1870) organizing medical assistance in wartime

Other wars: Balkan, Spanish-American (1898), Russo-Japanese (1904)

Natural disasters

Floods in China (1887 Yellow River, 900,000 die)

Earthquakes (Martinique 1902, Chile 1906)

Famines (Russia 1891-92, 500,000 die; Persia 1871; India 1876-79: 6-10 million die; China 1876-77; 1896-1902: 6-19 million est. die

Epidemics: Cholera in India 1904-1909, spreads to southeast Asia, Russia; plague in India 1904-1907; spreads to Burma, eventually Manchuria 1910-11

International organizations: for commerce, trade and some humanitarian assistance: womenπs suffrage, anti-slave trade (white and black), anti-opium (Shanghai conference 1909)

Civilizing Mission and European colonialism

-First World War

relief needs during war

treatment of prisoners, civilian population

relief after war

Western Europe: France, Belgium

Eastern Europe (new countries)

Russia: Civil War, Hoover and ARC,

Former Ottoman Empire: wars (Greek) and Armenian genocide

International organizations: League of Nations, League of Red cross Societies, Health Organization, etc.

-Interwar Period

Colonies and mandates

Natural disasters

Earthquakes: Tokyo 1923, Chile 1939

Famine: China 1920-21, 1929; Russia 1920-21, 1932-33

Epidemics: cholera E. Europe 1915-22; Manchurian plague 1920-21 60,000 die

Flood: China 1931 Yangste River, 3.7 million die from flood, disease and famine

Wars and manmade crises

Japanese invasion of China 1931

Italian invasion of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) 1935

Spanish Civil War 1936-39

Jewish persecution in Germany and refugees

-Second World War

1939-41 US neutral, relief to France and China

Oxfam (1942)

Postwar relief: CARE, refugees and resettlement (UNRAA), Palestine and Jews

Cold War to 1970s

UN organizations

From relief to development: bilateral v/s multilateral assistance

Decolonization and Rise of non-aligned ≥Third≤ world

1970-1990

Rise of NGOs

MSF and independent humanitarian assistance

Failures: Cambodia, Boat People, Ethiopian famine in 1980s

Successes?

1990s and after

Wars:

Bosnia (1991-95), Somali civil war (1991-93), Iraq 1 (1991), Rwandan genocide (1994), Kosovo (1999), Afghanistan (2001-), Iraq 2 (2003-)

Natural disasters:

Hurricane Mitch (Central America 1998, 11,000 died); Indian Ocean tsunami (2004)

Epidemic: HIV/AIDS (2004 3.1 million worldwide died of AIDS-related diseases)

Tags: благотворительность, голод
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